Chao Guo, G. Shockley and R. Tang
In this study, we examine this new intersection of the two worlds of religion and social enterprise. Drawing upon the concept of “entrepreneurial orientation” (EO) from the business and social entrepreneurship literatures, we examine how the entrepreneurial orientation of religious nonprofit organizations manifests itself in the various programs and initiatives they design and implement. An in-depth case study has been conducted on Partners in Christ International (PICI), a Christian mission organization. Our findings show that the three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation – proactiveness, innovativeness, and risk-taking – vary among three of the program initiatives that PICI has developed: 1) short-term mission trips, 2) forming alliances among indigenous churches, and 3) selling Nicaraguan coffee beans.
International Journal on Philanthropy and Social Innovation 2, (2009):71-82
Chao Guo, Zhibin Zhang and Dongjin Cai
China’s nonprofit and voluntary sector has been on the rise since the government launched its economic and political reforms in 1979. In light of their important roles as social service providers and advocates for the public interest, there have been growing concerns about the extent to which these organizations are representative of the interests of their members and constituents and are accountable for their actions and performance. In this paper, we explore the representational capacities of China’s nonprofit organizations, with a focus on grassroots organizations. Drawing upon Guo and Musso (2007), we examine the representativeness of these organizations along five major dimensions: substantive, symbolic, formal, descriptive, and participatory representation. We then present two illustrative cases of grassroots organizations to tease out the complexity of representational mixes found in these organizations. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications as well as future research directions.
Journal of Public Administration [Chinese] 2, No.3 (2009): 171-191