Gregory D. Saxton and Chao Guo
Nonprofit organizations are increasingly using Internet-based technologies to address accountability. This article presents a set of conceptual, theoretical, and empirical innovations to help understand this phenomenon. First, this article presents a conceptual framework that delineates two key dimensions of Web-based accountability practices: disclosure and dialogue. It then posits a four-factor explanatory model of online accountability incorporating organizational strategy, capacity, governance, and environment. Last, it tests the model through a content analysis of 117 U.S. community foundation Web sites combined with survey and financial data. The descriptive statistics show that the Web site has been more effectively used to provide financial and performance disclosures than to provide dialogic mechanisms for stakeholder input and interactive engagement. Our multivariate analyses, in turn, highlight capacity- and governance-related variables, especially asset size and board performance, as the most significant factors associated with the adoption of Web-based accountability practices.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40, no. 2 (2011): 270-295
Gregory D. Saxton, Chao Guo and William A. Brown
The incredible diffusion of the Internet is ushering in a new era of possibilities for nonprofit organizations to engage with and be responsive to their core stakeholders, yet little is known of the range and extent of such practices. To enhance our understanding of these increasingly important yet understudied phenomena, we conduct a comprehensive study of 117 community foundations’ Web-based stakeholder responsiveness practices. Our examination of four key dimensions of online responsiveness reveals a number of best practices and areas of untapped potential. We argue that online stakeholder responsiveness is increasingly a strategic concern; to successfully fulfill their mission, organizations thus need to consider seriously the amount and interactivity of the content they target at each of their core constituents.
Public performance & management review 31, no. 2 (2007): 144-173
Chao Guo and William A. Brown
This study draws on organizational ecology perspective to explore the environmental and organizational factors associated with the performance of community foundations. Performance was conceptualized as fiscal efficiency and grant-making performance. Analysis was conducted on a national survey of 117 community foundations. Results revealed that increased organizational density was positively associated with fiscal efficiency but negatively associated to grant-making performance. Specialist foundations (i.e., foundations that serve a smaller sized community and those with smaller asset size) outperformed their generalist counterparts in fiscal efficiency and grant-making performance. The percentage of unrestricted funds was negatively associated with fiscal efficiency but not grant-making generosity. Board performance was positively associated with fiscal efficiency but not grant-making generosity.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 35, no. 2 (2006): 267-287